List entry Summary
This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.
Name: COLDSTREAM BRIDGE (THAT PART IN ENGLAND)
List entry Number: 1153712
COLDSTREAM BRIDGE (THAT PART IN ENGLAND), A698
The building may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
| ||Northumberland||Unitary Authority||Cornhill-on-Tweed|
National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.
Date first listed: 06-May-1952
Date of most recent amendment: 05-Jul-2012
Legacy System Information
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System: LBS
This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.
List entry Description
Summary of Building
An C18 road bridge, designed by John Smeaton, spanning the River Tweed and the border between England and Scotland. Work on the bridge began in July 1763 and it was opened to traffic on 28 October 1766. The bridge has been subject to a number of C20 structural alterations.
Reasons for Designation
Coldstream Bridge is listed at Grade II* for the following principal reasons:
* Architectural: an ambitious, well-proportioned, and carefully-detailed C18 bridge design.
* Intactness: despite having been altered by widening, overall the bridge retains its original form, appearance and engineering characteristics.
* Historic interest: the first bridge designed by John Smeaton, the nationally renowned engineer of Eddystone Lighthouse fame, and exhibiting some of his hallmark architectural detailing.
Robert Reid of Haddington, overseer of the bridge project, prepared the first design for Coldstream Bridge in 1762, and at the same time a design was commissioned from the civil engineer John Smeaton. Smeaton's second design, which incorporated ornament and detail from Reid's plan, was finally accepted. Work on the bridge began in July 1763 and it was opened to traffic on 28 October 1766. The bridge has been subject to a number of alterations including strengthening the piers and rebuilding the parapet in 1922, and the renewing of its internal structure, provision of reinforcing concrete relieving arches and widening of the roadway in 1960-61.
The association of John Smeaton with Coldstream Bridge is highly significant as Smeaton is a figure of national renown, perhaps most famous for his design of the third Eddystone Lighthouse, the prototype of all masonry lighthouses built in the open sea. A small number of bridges designed by him are already listed including Coldstream, Hexham, Perth and Banff, but Coldstream was the first and the one in which he adopted detailing which became features of his later bridge design and widely regarded as his hallmark. He is highly regarded and is considered to have had a career of extraordinary distinction and breadth, producing a series of designs and plans unrivalled in clarity and logic, with works ranging from mills (water and wind) and steam engines to bridges, harbours, river navigations, canals, and fen drainage, in addition to major contributions to engineering science.
Road bridge spanning the River Tweed, a few hundred metres below the town of Coldstream, which at this point forms the border between England and Scotland. Constructed in 1763 by John Smeaton for the Tweed Bridge Trustees, incorporating elements from an earlier design by Robert Reid, resident engineer for the works. Repaired in 1922, altered in 1928 and again in 1960-61 when the deck was also widened.
MATERIALS: Constructed of squared and tooled sandstone blocks with ashlar dressings. The infill of the occuli is whinstone rubble.
PLAN: It is a large multi-span bridge with five segmental river arches, and a low semi-circular flood arch on either side. Immediately downstream is a large weir known as the Caud or Cauld, constructed in 1785 to reduce erosion of the bridge.
The segmental arches have arch bands and triple keystones, which increase in width and height towards the centre of the bridge. The arches spring from an impost band, which forms the base of the caps of the triangular cutwaters. Within the spandrels, there are four large keyed occuli. Above the arches, there is a dentil cornice and a parapet with shallow pilasters on both faces and slightly arched coping. Cantilevered concrete footpaths from 1960-61 to either side. The flood arches at either end have raised surrounds and pendent keystones.
APPROACHES: The southern (English) approach is flanked by walls with flat coping terminating in round end piers with domed caps. This approach has been re-aligned at some time: on the east side, the wing wall diverges from the line of its successor, and remains at a lower level, together with the lower section of its end pier. The northern (Scottish) approach has a west wall which curves to end in a stepped pier with a low domed cap. The eastern wing wall abuts the `Wedding House', a former Toll House.
PLAQUES AND INSCRIPTIONS: The northern flood arch bears an inscription recording a flood in February 1851 part way up the north side of its western opening. The centre of the inner face of the eastern parapet carries a plaque recording the date of its erection and subsequent alterations. The inner face of the western parapet carries a plaque erected in 1926, which records the crossing of the bridge by Robert Burns in 1787.
Books and journals
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Northumberland, (1992), 242
Jervoise, E, 'Architectural Press' in The Ancient Bridges of the North of England, (1931)Websites
Smeaton, John (1724–1792), civil engineer, accessed from http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/25746?docPos=2Other
Ryder, P & Sermon, R, Historic Bridges in Northumberland, 1993,
National Grid Reference: NT8488040122
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