List entry

List entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Twist Castle Romano-British farmstead

List entry Number: 1009497

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County District District Type Parish
LancashireBurnleyDistrict AuthorityBriercliffe

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 29-May-1952

Date of most recent amendment: 14-Oct-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23750

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Twist Castle Romano-British farmstead survives reasonably well and remains unencumbered by modern development. It is broadly similar to examples further north in Cumbria and Northumberland. It is one of four such monuments in the vicinity, each displaying slight differences in plan, and will contribute to any study of Romano-British native settlement patterns in Lancashire and the north of England.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a Romano-British farmstead located on the western end of Twist Hill from where it commands extensive views in all directions except the east. It includes an earth and stone bank or rampart up to 3m wide and 1m high which encloses an area measuring approximately 44m by 40m. Beyond this bank there would have been an outer ditch but this has gradually infilled and now shows few surface traces. There is an entrance measuring c.2.5m wide into the enclosure at the centre of the eastern side. Attached to the south eastern side of the enclosure, immediately to the south of this entrance, is an annexe measuring approximately 18m square with an earth and stone enclosure wall up to 2m wide by 0.3m high. A bronze coin of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180) was reportedly found here in 1888.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

  1. Other  Reference - Author: Capstick, B - Title: Twist Castle - Date: 1990 - Type: DESC TEXT - Description: FMW Report
  2. Other  Reference - Author: Lancs SMR - Title: Twist Castle, Burnley - Date: 1994 - Type: SMR - Description: SMR No. 253
  3. Article  Reference - Title: Proceedings-Stone Circles and Ancient Relicts at Extwistle - Date: 1893 - Journal Title: Trans Lancs & Chesh Antiq Soc - Volume: II - Page References: 189

National Grid Reference: SD 88867 33702

Map


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This copy shows the entry on 29-Jul-2014 at 01:48:52.